Glossary


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6

6in4

  •  IPv6 transition mechanism for migrating from Internet Protocol version 4 (IPv4) to IPv6
  • tunneling protocol that encapsulates IPv6 packets on specially configured IPv4 links according to the specifications of RFC 4213
  • IP protocol number for 6in4 is 41, per IANA reservation

A

AAR

  • After Action Report (AAR)
  • retrospective analysis on a given sequence of goal-oriented actions previously undertaken



Access Control

  • management of admission to system and network resources
  • grants authenticated users access to specific resources based on company policies and the permission level assigned to the user or user group
  • often includes authentication, which proves the identity of the user or client machine attempting to log in
  • often includes authorization, which is the process of determining which level of access each user is granted
  • can include physical access control, such as a locked door, or security guard
  • can include information access control, such a network login

ACL

  • Access Control List (ACL)
  • permissions attached to an object that specify which users are granted access to that object and the operations it is allowed to perform
  • each entry in an access control list specifies the subject and an associated operation that is permitted


AD

  • Active Directory (AD)
  • Windows OS directory service that facilitates working with interconnected, complex and different network resources in a unified manner
  • provides a common interface for organizing and maintaining information related to resources connected to a variety of network directories
  • directories may be
    • systems-based
    • application-specific
    • network resources, like printers
  • serves as a single data store for quick data access to all users and controls access for users based on the directory's security policy


ADB

  • Android Debug Bridge  (ADB)
    • command-line tool that lets you communicate with a device
    • facilitates a variety of device actions, such as installing and debugging apps
    • provides access to a Unix shell that you can use to run a variety of commands on a device

Aircrack

  • Aircrack-ng
    • suite of tools that provide capabilities for conducting RF communication monitoring and wireless network security auditing
    • network software suite consisting of a detector, packet sniffer, WEP and WPA/WPA2-PSK cracker and analysis tool for 802.11 wireless LANs
    • Works with any wireless network interface controller whose driver supports raw monitoring mode and can sniff 802.11a, 802.11b and 802.11g traffic
    • Runs under Linux, FreeBSD, macOS, OpenBSD, and Windows

ALE

  • Annualized Loss Expectancy (ALE)
  • annual expected financial loss from an asset because of a particular event occurring within one year
  • ALE = ARO × SLE

API

  • Application Programming Interface (API)
  • allows two systems to communicate with one another
  • provides the language and contract for how two systems interact
  • each API has documentation and specifications which determine how information can be transferred
  • can use HTTP requests to get information from a web application or web server
  • typically categorized as as either SOAP or REST and both are used to access web services
  • APIs work using ‘requests’ and ‘responses’
    • when an API requests information from a web application or web server, it will receive a response

API Endpoint

  • an endpoint is one end of a communication channel
  • when an API interacts with another system, the touchpoints of this communication are considered endpoints
  • for API's an endpoint can include a URL of a server or service
  • each endpoint is the location from which APIs can access the resources they need to carry out their function
  • APIs work using ‘requests’ and ‘responses’
  • when an API requests information from a web application or web server, it will receive a response
  • the place that APIs send requests and where the resource lives, is called an endpoint


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